In general, estrogen can be divided into several biochemically distinct hormones: estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17β-estradiol. In premenopausal women, estrogen is enzymatically converted to several specific estrogen metabolites including 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1), 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and 16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1). Both 16α-OHE1 and 2-OHE have contrasting biological activities at the cellular level with 16α-OHE1 being an estrogen agonist and proliferative, while 2-OHE is an estrogen antagonist and antiproliferative. As such, an increased ratio 2-OHE:16α-OHE1 is associated with a reduced risk of invasive breast cancer risk in premenopausal women. Several natural products found in EstroVantage EM support this latter concept including DIM, and indole 3 carbinol (I3C). A human study has confirmed that daily supplementation with 300 mg of I3C daily for 12 weeks significantly increased the 2-OH-estrone: estriol metabolite ratio without notable adverse events. Other compounds in EstroVantage EM, including calcium-d-glucarate, inhibit beta-glucoronidase activity, allowing for the excretion of estrogen before reabsorption. It is estimated that a 4% calcium glucarate supplemented diet inhibits beta-glucuronidase activity by 70%.
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